Surgeries in Zoo and Wildlife settings present unique challenges, from a wide array of anatomic and physical challenges to the n=1 conundrum. Dr. Reed from the San Diego Zoo will share cases she has encountered during her career in Australian wildlife hospitals, aquaria, and now in a large American zoo. With an emphasis on avian orthopedic fracture repair, approaches to surgery and post operative care in non-traditional species (including invertebrates, fish, large carnivores, and megavertebrates) will be discussed.
Introduction: Industry has seen a shift in the use of genetically modified mice for the evaluation of cardiac performance and function. There is significant interest in developing novel therapies to treat heart failure and measuring the effectiveness of compounds. Many models exist in larger species however, there are limited translational models for mice. To evaluate compounds in mice, often large animal models are scaled down to be utilized in studies. In this presentation we will discuss the development of a murine model of left ventricular pressure cannulation (LVP). Currently, echocardiography is routinely used to assess disease progression in rodent models of [...]
Auditory related health conditions have warranted the development of new treatments and drugs including, for example, gene therapy focusing on restoring the sensory receptors of the auditory and vestibular systems known as hair cells. However, accessing and treating the cochlea containing these hair cells offers a formidable surgical challenge. This presentation will introduce anatomical features, landmarks, and dosing techniques for the cochlea. Surgical hints are shared but also pitfalls that may be encountered when developing and performing these dosing procedures are also discussed.
Lumbar intrathecal access port implantation for Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection and/or intrathecal infusion in the non-human primate is being requested more frequently in the Safety Assessment world of biomedical research. Historically, performing a hemi-laminectomy to visualize and access the spinal dura for catheter cannulation has been the gold standard for the placement of these access catheters. There is an alternative. A minimally invasive technique using a Tuohy needle to access the intrathecal space and the advancing of an access catheter through this needle into the IT space with the need to perform a hemi-laminectomy, has proven to be an advantageous technique [...]
The importance of refinement does not need to be discussed; however, it is equally important to share the advances made with the community. At times individual refinements might be small and of little impact but over time they add up and improve a procedure considerably. In this presentation the advancements of surgical procedures performed in Göttingen Minipigs over the last few years are summed up and discussed. The following procedures are addressed: LVP Telemetry by left sided Thoracotomy: This procedure has ben refined in a way that with larger Minipigs only one incision is necessary. With other adjustments we brought down [...]
Due to the high demand for NHP’s as research models, and the disruptions that Covid 19 created amongst the suppliers of NHP’s, we have been dealing with a downward trend in the range of body weights in our surgical animals. 4 to 5 years ago, the average size of an NHP that we would be performing a surgical procedure on was around 3.5 kgs. Now, we are routinely performing major surgical procedures on animals from 1.5 kgs to 2.5 kgs. These smaller animals are technically juveniles and they can have different anesthetic needs. This change in size of the animal can [...]
Surgery The surgical procedure is often referred to in terms of surgery, but it should be referred to as a surgical act that is made up of: patient preparation, equipment preparation, preparation of the surgeon, surgical procedure, post-operative care and follow-up Surgical asepsis any measure taken to reduce bacterial contamination at the surgical site, aiming to reduce postoperative infections. • Direct measures • Patient preparation: shaving, depilation, disinfection of the surgical site, sterile drapes, sterile envelope for instruments, continuity of the operating field, normothermia, hydration, analgesia • Equipment preparation: sterile, adapted, back up kit? • Preparation of the surgeon • Indirect [...]
This amazing facility provides us with the opportunity to instruct on minimally invasive surgical techniques in the swine model. Students will get the opportunity to perform endoscopic, laparoscopic, and fluoroscopy-guided endovascular procedures. It is not very often that we have had the opportunity to provide instruction using fluoroscopy and we are very excited about this lab! Anesthesia, proper handling of the equipment and instruments needed to perform these procedures will be mentored, along with specific techniques and tips for each. This wet lab would not be possible without the generous donation from Premier BioSource. To learn more about their new barrier [...]
I am frequently asked to develop and validate novel models. Sometimes, I am just asked to perform a specific model I have never done before. Both situations are stressful; the first because it has never been done before, the latter because it seems so easy in the provided paper… But we know that the most important details are NOT in the paper!!! When realizing a model, we have to make sure that all the animals are operated by the same person, in the same manner, in the same time: reproducibility and repeatability are the 2 most important attributes. So, we have to be well prepared; the learning curve has to be behind us…